Ambien( Zolpidem 10mg) is a high-affinity positive modulator of GABAA receptors. It selectively binds to α1 subunits of this pentameric ion channel. Accordingly, it has strong hypnotic properties and weak anxiolytic, myorelaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Opposed to diazepam,Ambien( Zolpidem 10mg) is able to bind to binary αβ GABA receptors, where it was shown to bind to the α1–α1 subunit interface. Zolpidem has about 10-fold lower affinity for the α2- and α3- subunits than for α1, and no appreciable affinity for α5 subunit-containing receptors. ω1 type GABAA receptors are the α1-containing GABAA receptors and are found primarily in the brain, the ω2 receptors are those that contain the α2-, α3-, α4-, α5-, or α6 subunits, and are found primarily in the spine. Thus, zolpidem favours binding to GABAA receptors located in the brain rather the spine. Zolpidem has no affinity for γ1 and γ3 subunit-containing receptors and, like the vast majority of benzodiazepine-like drugs, it lacks affinity for receptors containing α4 and α6 Ambien( Zolpidem 10mg) modulates the receptor presumably by inducing a receptor conformation that enables an increased binding strength of the orthosteric agonist GABA towards its cognate receptor without affecting desensitization or peak currents.
Special precautions:Use of may impair driving skills with a resultant increased risk of road traffic accidents. This adverse effect is not unique to zolpidem but also occurs with other hypnotic drugs. Caution should be exercised by motor vehicle drivers. Studies showed that eight hours after a bedtime dose of 10 mg, 15% of women and 3% of men would have blood levels that produce impaired driving skills; for an extended-release dose of 12.5 mg, the risk increased to 33% and 25%, respectively. As a consequence, the FDA recommended the dose for women be reduced and that prescribers should consider lower doses for men.Patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) had reflux events measured to be significantly longer when taking zolpidem than on placebo. The same trend was found for reflux events in patients without GERD. This is assumed to be due to suppression of arousal during the reflux event, which would normally result in a swallowing reflex to clear gastric acid from the esophagus. Patients with GERD experience significantly higher esophageal exposure to gastric acid, which increases the likelihood of their developing esophageal cancer.
The most common side effects for short-term use include headache (reported by 7% of people in clinical trials) drowsiness (2%), dizziness (1%), and diarrhea (1%); the most common side effects of long-term use included dry mouth (3%), allergy (4%), back pain (3%), flu-like symptoms (1%), chest pain (1%), heart palpitations (2%), drowsiness (8%), dizziness (5%), lethargy (3%), drugged feeling (3%), lightheadedness (2%), depression (1%), abnormal dreams (1%), amnesia (1%), sleep disorder (1%), diarrhea (3%), abdominal pain (2%), constipation (2%), sinusitis (4%), sore throat (3%), and rash
An overdose of Ambien( Zolpidem 10mg) may cause excessive sedation, pin-point pupils, or depressed respiratory function, which may progress to coma, and possibly death. Combined with alcohol, opiates, or other CNS depressants, it may be even more likely to lead to fatal overdoses. Zolpidem overdosage can be treated with the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, which displaces zolpidem from its binding site on the benzodiazepine receptor to rapidly reverse the effects of the zolpidem.